Felix Martinez, Conversation by the Window, 1898, private collection.

Felix Martinez, Conversation by the Window, 1898, private collection.

Vicente Manansala, Luksong-Tinik, 1973, private collection.

Vicente Manansala, Luksong-Tinik, 1973, private collection.

Jose Rizal, Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, Félix Pardo de Tavera, and Juan Luna. Ramon N. Villegas collection.

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, Final Boceto of Per Pacem et Libertatem, 1904, Lopez Museum.

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, Final Boceto of Per Pacem et Libertatem, 1904, Lopez Museum.

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, Interior con Caballero, 1902, private collection.

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, Interior con Caballero, 1902, private collection.

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, India del Campo, La Ilustración Española y Americana, Año 1882, Vol. II.

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, India del Campo, La Ilustración Española y Americana, Año 1882, Vol. II.

Fernando Amorsolo, Palay Maiden, 1920, Ayala Museum.

Fernando Amorsolo, Palay Maiden, 1920, Ayala Museum.

San Jacinto, 19th century, Fowler Museum, UCLA.

San Jacinto, 19th century, Fowler Museum, UCLA.

Shawl, Piña, 19th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Shawl, Piña, 19th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Frede Vidar, “Refugees at the Church of Tacloban, Leyte, Philippines, Oct. 21, 1944,” Frick Collection.

Frede Vidar, “Refugees at the Church of Tacloban, Leyte, Philippines, Oct. 21, 1944,” Frick Collection.